CIC Blog: construction
The Diabetes Safety Organisation
I spend much of my working day visiting construction sites telling people about the consequences of unmanaged diabetes, such as erectile dysfunction, and telling managers that they could be at risk of liability if they are not correctly managing the risk associated with diabetes. Diabetes is a condition most people have heard about. It is in the media most weeks yet very few people understand the impact the condition can have on their bodies, their lives, their families and to their companies.
Diabetes is a hidden epidemic and the fastest-growing health threat facing our nation. 4.6 million people have the condition in the UK, 700 people are diagnosed a day (one every two minutes), it is the leading cause of blindness in the working population and 75% of men who have diabetes, suffer from erectile dysfunction at some point. Diabetes does not discriminate.
Diabetes can cause people to black out or act as if drunk when they are not correctly managing their condition. Those on high medications are required by the DVLA to test two hours before driving and every two hours whilst driving. This is not, as yet, a legal requirement on sites, but the same people may be operating heavy machinery or huge cranes. They are at risk of acting drunk or passing out with no regulations in place. Few companies have in place diabetes specific policies, risk assessments and diabetes first aid kits.
Diabetes is progressive, slowly impacting people’s health. As it cannot be seen in the early stages and the symptoms can be put down to late nights and other lifestyle factors, helping people and companies understand and manage the risk is crucial to today’s aging, busy workforce.
Why does it all matter so much to me, well we can save lives if we get this right and make a difference to people’s health. That is surely enough and if it’s not then we also help companies ensure they comply with their duties under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. Workers who are diagnosed with diabetes do not have to inform their company under the equality act (unless otherwise stipulated). However, employers have a duty to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that their employees and those affected by what the employer does are not exposed to risk to their health and safety (Health and Safety at Work Act 1974). If someone had a diabetic episode on site that resulted in a serious or fatal accident and an employer had taken no steps to assess and reduce risk, then the employer would commit a criminal offence and face a significant fine.
The other question I am regularly asked is why is no one else pushing this and why should we spend time and money in our company? My answer, do we need to wait for people to die or a clinical paper to show there is a problem, we know there is a problem, it is time we did something. Diabetes is a condition already recognised by the DVLA to be a high risk and is regulated. Additionally, the symptoms of diabetes expose the individual who has the condition, other employees and non-employees, to risk. The employer therefore has a duty to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that people are not exposed to this risk. I believe that it's an obvious risk once it has been pointed out. Employers must therefore assess and it and take reasonably practicable steps.
Currently diabetes has not been individually recorded at accident sites, so there are no criminal cases we can show you specifically, however that does not mean it wasn’t diabetes that was the cause. We know 500 people a week die in the UK from the complications of diabetes, but it may not be what is written on the death certificate! Do we need to wait to see diabetes as the written cause of death in the construction industry before we do something? I do hope not!
Taking reasonably practicable steps around diabetes safety does not need to be expensive to your company, there are simple measures that can be put in place to keep your staff safe and healthier. Doing nothing after reading this blog is not reasonably practicable.
With diabetes having a national prevalence of 7%, do you know the 7% of people in your company with the condition? Have you delivered diabetes awareness training to your staff, have those with the condition and roles that are required, been risk assessed and do you have policies and diabetes first aid kits across your business? If not, are you doing enough?
As diabetes continues to rise and risk increases, we are working with the international law firm, Gowling WLG, to increase awareness and safety. We believe it’s imperative that employers start to understand the risk that their employees and they themselves face and work together to eliminate it.
By using online training courses that educate people about the condition and its symptoms so that they manage it better will hopefully stop the accident and mean your company discharges the duty.
Don’t let a diabetes related episode contribute to a workplace accident leaving you open to a criminal offence and facing significant fines. Take steps to make your company ‘diabetes safe’. Why not sign up to the diabetes charter and commit to increase awareness to your staff. To find out more about the diabetes charter please go to diabetessafety.org.
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Kate Walker (Director)
Professor Sarah Lupton MA DipArch LLM RIBA CArb
Course Director for the Master of Design Administration
Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff University
It is generally recognised that the huge increase in the range and complexity of methods of procuring buildings, with the design process increasingly split across a wide range of different bodies, leads to fragmentation in design decision making. This in turn can result in lack of clarity in who is responsible for which aspects of design, confusion of liability issues, and failure to achieve initial project objectives.
A key challenge facing the industry is the successful integration and management of the design process, which can run from project inception through to handover and post occupancy feedback. This challenge applies both to the demand side, i.e. to clients seeking to establish accountable and efficient procurement arrangements, and to the supply side, i.e. firms working with clients to provide design services and/or combined design and construction packages that deliver optimal design solutions.
Essential to meet this challenge is the use of innovative processes for the identification, communication and realisation of design intent. These processes must be supported by clear contractual frameworks that accurately reflect the participants’ independent and shared responsibilities for achieving the design requirements in practice.
The MDA has been developed to meet the growing need for experts in design management, both within client bodies, consultancies, and within contractors and specialist sub-contractor firms.
The course focuses on developing the advanced knowledge and skills required to successfully manage the developing design process, including the identification and articulation of client requirements, completion of feasibility studies and establishment of measurable project objectives, the formation and management of the project team, including the use of interlocking contracts and design responsibility matrixes, the integration of contractor and specialist design input, collaborative working, dispute avoidance and resolution, and the successful delivery and handover of the project. It examines these issues in the context of both the UK and international procurement.
The course is intended for those in full time employment, with qualifications and experience in a relevant field. By bringing those with current relevant experience together, it allows for shared experience and a forum for debating and analysing the collective experience of students from a range of disciplines, both client side and supply side.
The MDA is delivered using ‘blended learning’ (a mixture of distance learning and short on-site courses). Regular on-line seminars and tutorials ensure that students are kept up to date with the latest developments in the field.
Although new, the MDA has been developed from an existing degree that has been running very successfully for over twelve years. It receives excellent feedback and has been commended by RIBA over successive visits, with students submitting the best adjudicator award receiving a prize form the Society of Construction Law. We have taken the best elements of the existing degree and combined them with several new features to create an exciting and unique programme.
This programme is led by Professor Sarah Lupton, a personal chair at the Welsh School of Architecture and a partner in Lupton Stellakis architects. She is dual qualified as an architect and as a lawyer. She lectures widely on subjects relating to construction law and is the author of many books, including ‘Design Liability in the Construction Industry’, a series on standard form building contracts, and is co-author (with Manos Stellakis, who also teaches on the course) of ‘Which Contract?', of a series of books on the use of performance specification, and of a series on legislative controls.
The Welsh School of Architecture welcomes applications for its MDA programme, starting this October. Anyone interested should contact Professor Sarah Lupton at firstname.lastname@example.org. She would be happy to receive queries direct, and to discuss the course over the phone. More information can be found at here.
CIC Champion on Higher Education and Deputy Convenor for the Higher Education Group of the Construction and Built Environment Education Advisory Committee (CBEE)
The UK construction and built environment industry faces a huge challenge in securing enough skilled labour to deliver the predicted volume of projects over the next few years. The Construction Industry Training Board estimates that the industry needs 168,500 new people to come into the workforce by 2022 (Construction Skills Network report, February 2019).
Supply of labour from the EU may become constrained post-Brexit due to changing immigration regulations, exacerbating the problem and increasing the need to recruit and train workers from within the UK. Apprenticeships represent a huge opportunity for the industry to address the growing skills shortage identified by employers and professional bodies.
Since the 2012 Richard Review of Apprenticeships it has been a central part of the UK Government’s skills policy to increase the volume and quality of Apprenticeships. This has involved setting a target of 5 million starts between 2015 and 2020 and introducing employer-led standards to replace the existing frameworks. A further policy driver is the introduction of the Apprenticeship Levy in May 2017.
Employers are putting more resources than ever into apprenticeships following the introduction of the Apprenticeship Levy with approx. £2 billion/year being allocated to apprenticeship provision. Feedback from UK employers indicates that the Apprenticeship system is not yet delivering the benefits that employers are looking for, with an estimated 86% Levy funds unspent after 18 months.
Issues identified to date include:
- Slow and confusing processes to approve new standards, leading to long delays in some cases, especially at higher and degree level where standards that are urgently required to meet skills gaps (such as Construction Site Manager, Building Control Surveyor and Construction Surveying Technician are still not available for employers to use)
- Lack of consistency and transparency in allocating funding bands to standards, rendering some standards undeliverable without employers providing additional top-up funding
- Lack of flexibility in design of End Point Assessment, leading to well-established processes for assessing professional competence being rejected
- Bureaucracy associated with meeting compliance requirements, which may deter some employers from wishing to be involved in Apprenticeships
Professional Apprenticeships Task and Finish Group
“Good progress has been made across numerous aspects of the apprenticeships agenda over the last year. But there are still many areas to improve if the system is to fully meet the needs of employers in the built environment industry. In particular we need to ensure that in these challenging times employers can realise the huge potential of the apprenticeships system to address their future skills needs.”
Tony Burton, Partner, Board Member, Gardiner & Theobald
A CIC Task and Finish Group will investigate such issues in greater depth and seek to identify potential improvements to the Apprenticeships system from a sector specific perspective. It is important to find out how it’s working for the built environment industry, to understand what’s going well (and what isn’t).
The aim will be to identify improvements which would make the system work better for the built environment industry and generate a series of practical recommendations which could be presented to policy makers for action:
- To specify how the industry can derive greater value from the apprenticeships system following the introduction of the Levy
- To make recommendations to Government to implement the changes required to achieve better outcomes for employers, apprentices and the economy
- Apprenticeships at all levels (3-7) in all built environment subjects
- To identify the main challenges experienced by employers in dealing with the apprenticeships system (e.g. in terms of availability of standards, use of Levy funds, flexibility to address business needs etc, taking account of a range of data sources)
- To articulate actionable improvements to the apprenticeships system for the benefit of the built environment industry
- To make specific evidence-based recommendations to policy makers
- Interim report by May 2019, timed to coincide with the second anniversary of the Apprenticeship Levy - the point at which employers start to lose access to unspent Levy funds.
The Task and Finish Group will represent the views of constituencies including employers, trailblazer groups, professional institutions, education providers and communicate effectively with others, including Institute for Apprenticeships & Technical Education, CITB, Construction Leadership Council, CBEE Advisory Committee and Government and its relevant departments.
For further information please send your contact details to email@example.com
Contributor: Aled Williams is Director of Research, Innovation and Partnerships at University College of Estate Management. (https://www.ucem.ac.uk/)
Chicks with Bricks
On the 6th October, Chicks with Bricks will bring a collection of women together from the construction industry to network, debate and celebrate at the ICA Gallery.
Tickets are priced at £32.50 (+VAT) and include the following:
• chicks with bricks membership
• an exclusive networking opportunity bringing together 120 young women and senior female leaders: the brightest and best of the construction industry.
• entry into the exclusive Nash rooms at the ICA.
• canapés and drinks.
• guest speakers.
So what is the event about?
The event is aimed at women of all ages and professions within the construction industry. There are a number of bodies representing women in construction; our aim is to bring them and their members together. It is because of our aim to create a more inclusive and cohesive network that we have support from National Association of Women in Construction, RIBA, RICS, the Construction Industry Council, and Women in Architecture to just name a few. Representatives from all of these bodies will be present at the event.
With only 120 places, there will be plenty of opportunity for you to meet like-minded individuals. The intimate setting will allow you to network easily and comfortably.
Furthermore, only 11% of the industry is made up of women, so this event aims to raise awareness of the few women who are in construction. Join us in our shared belief that there should be greater equality in this sector.
Attendees and Guest Speakers
Since 2005, Chicks has held numerous events bringing members together to network and communicate - architects, developers, lawyers, tradeswomen, engineers, academics, policymakers, designers, manufacturers, contractors, surveyors, project managers and media. Twice-yearly events bring 200 to 400 women together for drinks and debate led by well-known industry figures at exclusive venues.
This year we are pleased to welcome Annie Hampson (Chief Planning Officer for The City of London), Claire Bennie (Development Director at Peabody), Lucy Heller (CEO of Ark) and a Young Ambassador from The Prince’s Trust. In previous years, guest speakers have included Rt. Hon Patricia Hewitt MP, Zoe Blackler (Building Design Magazine), Sara Fox (Swiss RE and the client for the Gherkin), and Sarah Ebanja (lead of the £700 million Arsenal Development).
Attendees will have the opportunity to discuss prominent issues and ask questions to other professionals. Speakers will be invited to open up the floor for a question and answer session after their talk.
Supporting the future generation
Thanks to our sponsors, Carillion, we have been able to reduce ticket prices and offer some free tickets to young professionals and students aged between18-25 to encourage even greater inclusion. Furthermore, our event will fundraise for The Prince’s Trust, to help young disadvantaged women to get into the sector through The Trust’s ‘Get into Construction’ Programme.
We operate as a non-profit network with an aim to cover the basic costs of catering and venue through ticket sales.
The ICA Gallery, home to London Fashion week, is the ideal location for Chicks. Situated on The Mall, minutes away from Charing Cross tube station, it is easily accessible and centrally located. The Nash and Brandon rooms are a spectacular example of Georgian architecture, designed by John Nash himself with views over St James’s Park towards the Houses of Parliament.
Contributor: Alice works for Holly Porter (founder of Chicks with Bricks) at Holly’s Architectural Practice in Wapping – Surface to Air Architects. Alice has been working on the organisation of Chicks with Bricks for the past 9 months as well as doing a bit of architecture on the side.
If you have any queries, please contact Alice Moxley on 07752138242 or visit the website
Twitter handle: @withbricks
Tickets can be purchased via eventbrite
CIC Yorkshire & Humber Chair
Architect, Pearce Bottomley Architects
Sustainable communities are places where people want to live and work because they meet diverse needs, are sensitive to the environment, safe and inclusive. The construction industry plays a huge part in building these communities, providing homes, infrastructure, jobs and social institutions. Whether the Bronze Age stone circles or modern stadia, construction is intrinsic to the creation of community and there is no better place to explore this than Yorkshire, where evidence dates back to the prehistoric.
As the location of the Grand Depart, Yorkshire is building a new type of community for the region, one that combines sport, tourism and media. By following the cycling route map – a new sort of neighbourhood plan – we can explore the type of communities Yorkshire had – and has – to offer from Roman roads to modern arenas and ask what we can learn from the past to build the communities of the future.
The new Leeds Arena is the face of the modern construction industry and a reflection of the need of communities to gather for a shared interest, be it gladiatorial combat or a Bruce Springsteen concert. As the first purpose-built arena with a fan-shaped design and “the best acoustic experience of any large arena venue in the country”, it created technical challenges for the construction team. But this is not the only ‘new’ arena in the area. 2011 saw the discovery of a significant Roman Amphitheatre in Aldbrough, which also demonstrates cutting edge construction skills.
Central to the development of communities in the region was the building of monasteries in Yorkshire. Architecturally, the buildings pushed boundaries; economically and politically, these institutions were the power houses of the country. Fountains Abbey in Ripon was the largest and richest of the Northern abbeys, with an influence that extended to the rest of the country and as far as Norway. It was occasionally at the forefront of international affairs, whilst closer to home, thousands of people relied on the abbey for work, food, trade and shelter, as well as spirituality. Today it is a World Heritage site and the impact on tourism is clear but are there lessons here in constructing sustainable communities?
The Dissolution of the Monasteries by Henry VIII to form the estates of the gentry had a profound and permanent effect on the Yorkshire landscape. Their stewardship of the land continues to define the character of much of rural Yorkshire and rural business. Bolton Abbey, is a prime example of how once redundant traditional buildings that are no longer suitable for mainstream farming can be given a new lease of life within the community.
Religion was also key to the development of the Rowntree Company established by Joseph Rowntree in 1862. By the time it was acquired by Nestlé in 1988 it was the fourth largest confectionery manufacturer in the world. The company was founded on Quaker principles and Rowntree was deeply interested in improving the quality of life of his employees. In creating the model village of New Earswick, in York, Rowntree stated that he did “not want to establish communities bearing the stamp of charity but rather of rightly ordered and self governing communities". The Rowntree Trust continues to build today along the same principles, demonstrating that the need for well-designed communities is as relevant today as it was then.
But what about Yorkshire’s urban communities that have experienced the highs of the Industrial Revolution and the lows of the modern economy? Hebden Bridge flourished during the Industrial revolution, being a central part of the wool industry that came to define much of the West Riding. By the late 20th century however, the small mill town was looking like a northern backwater. The fact that the railway survived the 1960s axe, reinforced the relationship the town has with the larger metropolises of Manchester and Leeds, allowing it to become a vibrant suburb with a distinct sense of independence. The reinvention of Hebden Bridge fits nicely into the aims of the ‘Northern Way’ initiative before the demise of the LDAs. How can other parts of the UK replicate Hebden Bridge's success? And should the ‘Northern Way’ be rebuilt?
Likewise, Sheffield is a lesson on how a city can be reborn. Having established itself as the ‘City of Steel’ in the 18th and 19th centuries, the 1980s saw its dramatic fall as an industrial powerhouse, with the loss of over 50,000 jobs. Yet Sheffield is now leading the way in its regeneration by engaging with the city in innovative and creative ways, facilitating diverse employment and taking advantage of two top class universities. This thinking, which combined exemplary architecture and landscape design that was thoroughly endorsed by the Council, has resulted in Sheffield’s GVA increasing by 60% since 1997, standing at £9.2 billion in 2007, with steady growth averaging around 5% annually. So are there ways we can learn from Sheffield?
‘Le Grand Tour de Yorkshire’ is the subject of the CIC Yorkshire and Humber Conference which takes place at the National Railway Museum in York on 25 June 2014.
Contributor: Stefanie chairs CIC's Yorkshire and Humber regional committee and is an Architect at Pearce Bottomley Architects in Leeds.
4th year undergraduate at the University of Warwick
2016. BIM. Construction. These three words are of great significance to Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry professionals, and have been the topic of much development, and conversely debate, since the release of the Government Construction Strategy in 2011. However, to many UK civil engineering undergraduates, BIM itself means very little, whilst to the few who have heard of it, its meaning and purpose is somewhat confused.
Before I began my research into this topic for my project, I, along with many others, thought the significance of BIM is due to how advanced the 3D modelling technology is. In fact, it is far more to do with the way it effectively manages information. This common misconception amongst students (and even their tutors!) is caused by one fundamental problem: lack of education.
My research involved investigating how or indeed if BIM is taught in the 24 Russell Group universities. The results were as follows:
The 9 UK universities who registered a level of BIM activity were primarily involved in research and postgraduate study. There was very little to suggest undergraduates anywhere were studying or even being made aware of BIM, especially in civil engineering courses, until a brief mention in the undergraduate prospectus at Leeds. This is a frightening thought given the fast approaching 2016 deadline. How are these graduates meant to be prepared?
Findings from the 2013 National BIM Survey may help to highlight the issue further:
- 71% of respondents agreed that BIM represents the ‘future of project information’
- 74% agreed that the industry is ‘not clear enough on what BIM is yet’.
So we agree that BIM is important, but its definition is uncertain. In addition to this, if industry is not clear enough on what BIM is, then how it is to be taught effectively?
To some extent the problem is alleviated as training for professionals is readily available. However, will somebody with 25 years of experience be willing to completely change their ways to incorporate BIM? Grass roots education is the key to solving the issue as BIM is believed to be a new way of thinking. Despite this, there is very little specification from industry to define the ‘BIM-Enabled’ graduate.
So, what can we do about it?
Well, the first step is to decide what to teach. I realised it is not feasible to teach BIM in its entirety due to the cost of software and the enormity of the subject. Fundamentally students must be able to a) work and engage in collaborative group design work, b) have simple design conceptual skills and c) have a general awareness of BIM, this awareness being based upon three main topics, People, Process and Technology.
- Cover what BIM is and its role in the AEC industry.
- Understand why BIM is needed.
- Appreciate the business case for BIM and the government’s stance on it.
- Understand the basics of how BIM will be implemented, covering the Push-Pull strategy and the concept of data drops.
- Know the format of and problems with the traditional design, procurement and construction process, the tools and techniques it uses and the improvements BIM introduces.
- Be aware of lifecycle management- design conception to demolition.
- Work to the ‘right first time’ ethos in design work.
- Appreciate the importance of collaboration.
- Understand how parametric objects and clash detection define BIM and how data sets and reports can be extracted from the original 3D model.
- Understand the role that cloud technology and standards such as COBie play.
The question now, is how do we introduce this core content and these skills into the already overcrowded civil engineering degree structure?
It may be that it’s introduced as a course elective, such as ‘Civil Engineering with BIM’, or as a single optional module available to students, therefore reducing the time constraint. However, in my opinion, rather than teaching it as a separate subject, BIM has the potential to be, or should be, fully integrated into the curricula. It is plausible that the Joint Board of Moderators could include it within its three main threads of Civil Engineering accreditation, which are Design, Sustainability and Healthy and Safety and Risk Management. BIM in fact combines with all of these.
There are still many barriers to introduction still to overcome, such as delivery and assessment. Given that it’s still new to industry, who will teach it? Furthermore, how will teaching content be moderated for consistency across the board?
Despite this, BIM urgently needs to be introduced into civil engineering curricula to ensure the next generation of graduates understand exactly what is going on and why. After all, they will soon be required to have a level of knowledge and understanding that allows them to fit into industry with minimal time and cost expenditure. As it stands, this is not going to happen. It’s clear that higher education needs to catch up with industry, quickly.
Contributor: Joe Wesley is a 4th year undergraduate at the University of Warwick, studying for an MEng Masters in Civil Engineering. Earlier this year he completed his third year individual project, ‘BIM and the Civil Engineering Undergraduate’, which involved developing a proposal for the introduction of BIM at the University of Warwick.
Mark Wilson MCIAT
Building Design Expert
This government flagship looked a winner on the drawing board, showed great promise during construction. But it stalled in the slipway because someone had forgotten to secure its finance arrangements, and subsequently launched into a sleepy backwater with barely a ripple.
Government ministers trumpeted that this was always the plan, and that the ‘energy marketers’ would man the tugs to guide this flagship out to sea. Six months on and one cannot help but wonder that for the price of a short length of rope, a bottle of champagne and some celebrity trumpeting; would we now be cruising at top speed in open water?
Maybe not, but the fact that it was never an appetiser on the menu draws questions of judgment. I did a lot of research in the run up to the first false dawn, and indeed spoke to many people, and came to the consistent conclusion that if the government struggled to ‘give away’ insulation under the banners of CERT and CESP, what made them think we were now going to happily pay for it?
We are several months down the Green estuary, but the outlook remains a very dark grey. Statistics released at the start of July gave us 14 million homes, 19,000 green deal assessments made, and 4, yes Four, GD implementations. Whilst ministers hedged for a while; common sense began to prevail, with an announcement that they would look at better ways to incentivise the offering, and guess what – we are still waiting.
At least they got what the problem was. Take a step backwards and ask “what’s in it for me?” – the home owner that is. The altruistic mindset was clearly not registering a plus sign, meaning that just a carbon saving gain for the UK, and little else until the GD loan was paid off, was not enough. Perhaps they were right; the ‘Golden Rule’ offered no financial advantage other than enough to pay off the loan, and by the time it was paid the technology that had been originally installed would be out of date, and probably well under-performing by the technology standards of that day to come.
So where do we head from here?
It’s a precarious irony that although the government have frequently reminded us that as birth parents to the Green Deal, they are more than happy to relinquish the nurturing, and caring through the accelerated ageing of it’s teenage years, to the foster parents that are the “Market Forces”. Yet, they have now exercised their right to bring it back to their comfortable home for a haircut, wash behind the ears and some freshly starched underwear. One can’t help but imagine the next step, after a good talking to of course, as a tousle of the hair and a comforting hand on the shoulder before being sent off down the garden path to cut a dash in the world once more.
It is not at all helpful, but the industry has been driven to cynical ledge. A flagship programme has tripped over the starting blocks; since the demise of CERT and CESP, cavity wall insulation installations are down at one quarter of one percent from a year ago; one in four insulation installers no longer have their jobs; six months after a delayed start due to another oversight on passing of legislative powers to enable Green Deal financing, there still remain significant issues in securing the money to carry out installation work, and at the beginning of July 2013 the first Green Deal provider has been put into receivership. Does anyone detect a trend?
After lifting the lid, that is just what’s floating on the surface. Lurking in the depths of this cauldron the government have created a wounded beast that cannot be abandoned and left to die, but are also struggling to secure the industrial strength sticking plaster needed to stop the wounds from bursting. There will be heavy scarring, and there may be more casualties as our flagship scrapes its hull along this mud bank. There is open water in sight, if only because the principles around which the Green Deal has been constructed are, in themselves, robust. However, a contribution towards a national reduction in carbon emissions was never likely to cut it with your average consumer. Incentivisation anyone?
Contributor: Mark Wilson MCIAT started his career in January 1985 as a member of the Society of Architectural and Associated Technicians, and now represents himself under the heading – Chartered Architectural Technologist.
He has run his own practice for the past 13 years, having spent the previous time working for various Architects and Developers on a wide variety of projects. You can find about more about him via www.buildingdesignexpert.com or Twitter